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RSF Review

RSF Review

Breaking Bad: Social Influence and the Path to Criminality in Juvenile Jails

August 15, 2014

In a new working paper supported by the Foundation, Megan Stevenson (University of California, Berkeley) investigates the extent to which peer influence in juvenile correctional facilities affects the rate at which youth offenders are reconvicted. Nationwide, between 40-45% of adults released from prison are incarcerated again within three years, with similar numbers for juveniles.

Though several previous studies have examined other societal factors that may lead to the high number of repeat offenders, there has been very little empirical research on whether the social experience of incarceration affects future criminal activity. As Stevenson states in her abstract:

Using detailed administrative data and quasi-random cohort-level variation, I find that exposure to high risk peers while in a juvenile correctional facility has a large impact on future crime. I consider three mechanisms to explain this effect: criminal skill transfer, the formation of criminal networks which persist after release, and the social contagion of crime-oriented attitudes and non-cognitive traits. I find evidence consistent with the social contagion mechanism in residential correctional facilities. Exposure to peers from unstable and/or abusive homes leads to increased aggression, impulsivity and anti-societal attitudes, as well as increased criminal activity.

New Chartbooks on Social Inequality Available on RSF Website

August 12, 2014

The Foundation has recently added several new chartbooks on Social Inequality to the website, including new data on income and earnings, educational attainment and achievement, and the rise of economic inequality in the U.S. through 2012.

In each section, the Foundation has assembled a broad set of indicators of social and economic trends that reflect powerful and consequential divisions within the U.S. population. Some of the charts are drawn from government sources, some from published articles and books, and some are based directly on in-house calculations of publicly available data by Russell Sage Foundation staff.

The chart below, for instance, shows changes in family income between two periods in the U.S. Between 1947 and 1975, a period of national economic prosperity, growth in family income was relatively evenly distributed among all income groups giving credence to the adage "a rising tide lifts all boats". Between 1975 and 2012 however, income growth has been differentially distributed among different income categories, with each successively higher income category experiencing significantly greater gains.

RSF President Sheldon Danziger to Deliver Keynote Address

August 11, 2014

Russell Sage Foundation president Sheldon Danziger will deliver the keynote address, “After the Great Recession: Poverty, Inequality and Public Policies,” at the Innovative Programmatic and Policy Responses to Poverty conference on August 18, 2014.

One of the leading poverty scholars in the United States, Danziger is also co-editor of the 2014 RSF publication Legacies of the War on Poverty. The book—published on the fiftieth anniversary of President Lyndon Johnson’s declaration of an unconditional war on poverty—evaluates the success of the anti-poverty programs established during Johnson’s administration, many of which still form the basis of the social safety net in the U.S. today.

Additional panels at the IPPRP conference will focus on economic security and workforce development; social entrepreneurship and social purpose businesses; wealth generation and asset building; innovative policy responses; and innovative funding alternatives such as social impact bonds, funding collaborative and crowdfunding. Click here to read more and to register for the conference.

Nancy DiTomaso Runner-Up for George R. Terry Book Award

August 7, 2014

On August 3, at its 74th annual meeting, the Academy of Management named The American Non-Dilemma by Nancy DiTomaso (Rutgers) the runner-up for the 2014 George R. Terry Book Award. This award is granted annually to the book judged to have made the most outstanding contribution to the global advancement of management knowledge during the last two years.

The American Non-Dilemma convincingly argues that America's enduring racial divide is sustained more by whites' preferential treatment of members of their own social networks than by overt racial discrimination. Drawing on research from sociology, political science, history, and psychology, as well as her own interviews with a cross-section of non-Hispanic whites, DiTomaso provides a comprehensive examination of the persistence of racial inequality in the post-Civil Rights era and how it plays out in today's economic and political context.

Former Visiting Scholar Ramakrishnan Appointed to California Commission on APIA Affairs

August 5, 2014

Former RSF Visiting Scholar and grantee Karthick Ramakrishnan (University of California, Riverside) has just been appointed to the California Commission on Asian Pacific Islander American Affairs. The Commission works to elevate the political, economic, and social issues of Asians and Pacific Islanders by contributing to and strengthening how state government addresses the needs, issues, and concerns of the diverse and complex Asian and Pacific Islander American communities.

In his time in residence at the Foundation, Ramakrishnan examined immigrant civic engagement and its implications for social and political inequality in several U.S. and Canadian cities. He looked at at immigrant participation in mainstream and ethnic organizations, asking whether such behavior serves as a way for immigrants to combat inequality and improve their social position. With Irene Bloemraad, he co-authored the RSF publication Civic Hopes and Political Realities, which explores these same themes.

Ramakrishnan is additionally a former research fellow at the Public Policy Institute of California and holds memberships in the Association of Asian American Studies and the University of California Asian American and Pacific Islander Policy Multicampus Research Program.

New York Times and TIME Magazine Discuss New RSF Research

July 29, 2014

The New York Times and TIME magazine recently covered a new study by Fabian T. Pfeffer, Sheldon Danziger, and Robert Schoeni, released as part of the Russell Sage Foundation’s Recession Trends collaboration with the Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality. In the study, the authors explore the extent to which the Great Recession altered the level and distribution of American families’ wealth. Their research concludes that for typical American households, net worth fell by about a third between 2003 and 2013. Yet, as Anna Bernasek notes in the NYT, “The Russell Sage study also examined net worth at the 95th percentile. (For households at that level, 95 percent of the population had less wealth.) It found that for this well-do-do slice of the population, household net worth increased 14 percent over the same 10 years.” In other words, the study uncovers not just the losses sustained by American households during the Recession, but also the troubling and still-growing increase in wealth inequality in the U.S.

The New York Times also recently highlighted new research by Andrew Cherlin, a former Visiting Scholar and the author of Labor’s Love Lost (to be published by the Russell Sage Foundation in December 2014). In his forthcoming book, Cherlin offers a new historical assessment of the rise and fall of working-class families in America, demonstrating how momentous social and economic transformations have contributed to the collapse of this once-stable social class and what this seismic cultural shift means for the nation’s future. As Cherlin explained to the Times, in the 50s and 60, most working class families were sustained by a male breadwinner. But the collapse of industrial blue-collar jobs and the increase in the number of women in the workforce have eroded this family structure.

Legacies of the War on Poverty Panel at ASA

July 28, 2014

A panel session at the upcoming American Sociological Association (ASA) will feature a discussion of the 2014 Russell Sage Foundation publication, Legacies of the War on Poverty, co-edited by RSF president Sheldon Danziger and Martha J. Bailey (University of Michigan). The book—published on the fiftieth anniversary of President Lyndon Johnson’s declaration of an unconditional war on poverty—evaluates the success of the anti-poverty programs established during Johnson’s administration, many of which still form the basis of the social safety net in the U.S. today.

While some accounts portray the War on Poverty as a costly experiment that failed, the contributors featured in Legacies draw from fifty years of empirical evidence to show that this view is too simplistic and document many ways that War on Poverty programs improved the educational attainment, incomes and health of the poor and the elderly.

The panelists at the upcoming ASA talk are Legacies co-editor Sheldon Danziger and contributors Kathleen McGarry (UCLA) and Harry Holzer (Georgetown), in conversation with David B. Grusky (Stanford).

A Letter from RSF President Sheldon Danziger Regarding the Foundation's Visiting Scholars Program

Sheldon Danziger, Russell Sage Foundation
July 17, 2014

Dear Colleagues: I am writing to solicit your personal interest in and your help in identifying outstanding faculty candidates, especially those who are members of groups that may have been under-represented in the social sciences, for the Russell Sage Foundation's Visiting Scholars Program. This competitive program provides a unique opportunity for both junior and senior faculty members from all of the social, economic and behavioral sciences to spend a year in residence at the Foundation pursuing research that is relevant to the Foundation's signature program areas—Behavioral Economics, Cultural Contact, the Future of Work, Immigration Research, and Social Inequality.

The program has operated for almost three decades. Past participants (I was a visiting scholar in 2002-2003) have described the experience as invaluable, productive and stimulating. Each year, we select a class of 16-18 scholars, from some 150 to 200 applicants. The application requires a letter describing the intended project and a current CV. Click here to read more about the program's eligibility requirements.

New Awards Approved in Social Inequality and Future of Work Programs

July 15, 2014

Several new research projects in the Russell Sage Foundation’s Social Inequality and the Future of Work programs were funded at the Foundation’s June meeting of the Board of Trustees.

The Foundation’s Social Inequality program examines the social and political consequences of rising economic inequality. Recently, the program has turned to in-depth examinations of public education and intergenerational social mobility, funding projects that examine access to early education, growing wealth disparities in the U.S., and the effects of household wealth on child development, among others. The following projects were funded under the Social Inequality program:

RSF at the 2014 American Sociological Association Conference

July 9, 2014

The 109th Annual Meeting of the American Sociological Association (ASA) will take place in San Francisco, from August 16 to 19, 2014. The theme this year is "Hard Times: The Impact of Economic Inequality on Families and Individuals." ASA President and former RSF Visiting Scholar and grantee Annette Lareau and the 2014 Program Committee have put together an exciting program, with over 600 sessions highlighting social science research that documents the breadth and depth of economic inequality and its consequences.

Among the twenty-one books that will be discussed at the Author Meets Critics Sessions are two Russell Sage publications: