Michael Stoll, assistant professor of policy studies at the University of California, Los Angeles, will examine the state of employer demand for former welfare recipients in Chicago, Cleveland, Milwaukee, and Los Angeles. With the imposition of work requirements and time limits in the 1996 welfare reform legislation, it is important to understand the social and economic difficulties of moving welfare recipients to work. Using an extensive survey of employers he will examine the following questions: What barriers exist on the demand side? What prospects do the least-skilled, least-experienced welfare recipients face? How will the situation change come the next economic downturn? Are minority or female-owned firms more likely to hire welfare recipients and why? A second project will seek to explain why firms with a black person in charge of hiring employ more African-Americans than firms with a white person in that position.