View full chart

The Civilian Workforce and Labor Force Participation Rate, by Gender, 1900 to 2000

"Figure 9.2 displays the growth of the labor force and women's share in it. The left-hand graph tracks the absolute numbers...The total doubled between 1900 and 1940, and had doubled again by 1980; women's participation increased twelvefold, from 5 million in 1900 to 65 million in 2000. The right-hand graph shows the proportion of each gender who were working. Men were already participating at about 80 percent in 1900; their rates actually fell as retirement became important."—p. 102, Century of Difference



RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal of original empirical research articles by both established and emerging scholars.


The Russell Sage Foundation offers grants and positions in our Visiting Scholars program for research.


Join our mailing list for email updates.