View full chart

Math Gaps, in Standard Deviation Units, by Grade Level by Socio-Demographic Characteristics: SES, Race/Ethnicity and Sex

In separate analyses, Greg Duncan and Katherine Magnuson, and George Farkas examined academic achievement gaps by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity and gender from Kindergarten to 12th grade – Duncan and Magnuson from Kindergarten to 5th grade, and Farkas from 8th to 12th grade. A comparison suggests that SES differences (bottom vs. top income quintiles) dwarf race/ethnic and gender differences. These data also suggest that differences that exist at kindergarten tend to persist over the school years.


RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal of original empirical research articles by both established and emerging scholars.


The Russell Sage Foundation offers grants and positions in our Visiting Scholars program for research.


Join our mailing list for email updates.