Progress in Schooling: A Review

Publication Date:
Jan 2002
Project Programs:
Social, Political, and Economic Inequality

This essay reviews measures, trends, and differentials in grade retention and dropout in American elementary and secondary schools across the past three decades. It also discusses some of the current policy debates related to the processes of grade retention and dropout, especially as these relate to social and economic inequalities in progress through schooling.


RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal of original empirical research articles by both established and emerging scholars.


The Russell Sage Foundation offers grants and positions in our Visiting Scholars program for research.


Join our mailing list for email updates.